What is a Bessie bug is a question we have received from plenty of gardeners who either come across these insects or just want to learn about them.
A Bessie bug, Bess bug, or Betsy bug (Odontotaenius disjunctus)is a 1.5-inch long black beetle that is also known as a patent leather beetle (because of their shiny black wing), horn beetle, pinch bug, or horned passalus. It belongs to the beetle family (family Passalidae) of the over 500 species of beetles mostly found in the tropics.
This insect loves to live in humid climates across the US from Florida through Texas to Minnesota, Nebraska, and Massachusetts.
This bug is harmless and beneficial so do not go killing it and it feeds on rotting wood. They are large, ranging between 30 and 40 mm in length. They are flat and squarish with a horn that points forward at the top of the head.
Where Do The Bessie Bug Commonly Live?
Bessie bugs live together as a family under the bark of decaying logs. Both the male and female process decaying wood as food and feed it to their larvae. The only group of insects that exhibit this similar behavior between males and females is the termites.
Beetles love the well-rooted hardwood logs, stumps, and other decaying wood in deciduous forests. Both the larvae and adults eat wood. They create winding tunnels in wood and live together in family groups with the males and females tending and feeding the larvae.
Bess beetle adults and larvae communicate by sounds audible to humans. Most people wonder what sounds are those that beetles make. The adult rubs its wings across rough patches on the abdomen and the larva rubs its vestigial hind pair of legs against its middle legs.
What Is A Betsy Bug Eating?
Both adults and larvae love to eat rotting wood or hardwood logs plus the fungi and juices associated with it. Adults feed the larvae by chewing wood to soften it before feeding it to the larvae.
Beetles do not eat anything else except wood. That is why you should not destroy them when you come across them.
What Is The Lifecycle Of The Bessie Bug?
Beetles live for more than a year. Although they fly, they do not do it commonly especially the adults. They tend to stay in the galleries and tunnels in their colony’s home. When the adults fly, it may be for mating or dispersal or because light captivates them.
Mating takes place in the colony and eggs hatch into larvae fed by adults until they are mature. They grow, molt, pupate and then emerge as adult beetles.
Bessie Bug’s Connection With Humans
Although they give humans a genuine pinch that feels like a sting, they cannot harm you at all. Do you know there were some people who believed this beetle could cure an earache? These people were the Ozarkers and they believed its blood was medicine. They called this insect the Betsy bug.
This is not known today as truth or myth because it has not been verified. In addition, no one knows if this group of people continue to use this method to treat earache.
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Bessie Bug’s Ecosystem Connections
This insect plays an important role in the ecosystem system that most people do not know about. It has a critical role in cycling nutrients in rotting logs back into the soil while richening the earth and helping to clear the forest or fallen timber.
Animals including the woodpeckers and raccoons poke or probe through the rotting logs eating the grubs. This is easy because the Bessie bugs that burrow through the logs for food and living.
Other animals like birds, skunks, bats, frogs eat the adult bugs when they get out of their colony’s log. Mites and other insects feed on bot larvae and adults too.
Bessy Bug Conclusion
There are many types of insects that either harm or help the plants. These insects are not common to many people and could be destroyed with the thought that they are harmful.
Now that we have seen what a Bessie bug is and learned a few things about it, next time you come across them in the woods or in your garden if you have a piece of rotting wood, don’t kill them. They mean no harm to you or your crops.
They are only enjoying life and providing food to other insects and animals thus keeping the ecosystem alive. Allow yourself to co-exist with nature peacefully instead of being quick to get pesticides. The best natural methods to eliminate insects are Neem oil and insecticidal soap. Choose these methods before using pesticides and insecticides that are full of harmful chemicals. Happy gardening!